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GPR55 (CB3)

The GPR 55 is a receptor found to react to both THC and CBD,  this has led to some scientists suggesting that it should be reclassified as CB3. There is some evidence that it plays an important role in the regulation of bone metabolism,  as well as improving inflammatory pain control and on tumour cells proliferation. However the lack of selective GPR55 agonists and antagonists makes further research difficult at this stage..

Pharmaceutical companies initially hoped chemicals acting on GPR 55 would reduce blood pressure,  however rats bred to not have GPR 55 had no issues with blood pressure so drug development has stopped.

CBD is primarily an antagonist of GPR55 and stops its expression, leading to some of its physiological effects.  It is poorly understood however, with its role in several areas of the body poorly understood.

Pathophysiological relevance of GPR55 expression. Recent evidence suggests that GPR55 is involved in the control of a variety of physiological functions. In the nervous system, GPR55 regulates dorsal root ganglia excitability and controls inflammatory and neuropathic pain. In blood, GPR55 regulates neutrophil migration and may prevent oxidative damage. GPR55 is also involved in bone metabolism, specifically inducing bone resorption. Other studies have suggested additional roles for GPR55 in modulating vascular function [by inducing vasorelaxation and controlling angiogenesis, renal tubule hypertrophy, decidual tissue regression during pregnancy, and mast cell-mediated antiinflammatory actions. However, additional experimental evidence is required to support these hypotheses. Besides controlling these (and most probably many other) physiological functions, GPR55 seems to play an important role in cancer progression by modulating cancer cell proliferation and migration.